I think I found a weird "selection" loophole in css. Logically, I need "all *anchor* tags that have a *img* tag as a child" ... i.e. <a href=""><img src=""/></a> I need to apply styles to *a* tags with this nesting structure. nothing works ... and i would think it would be fairly common. it seems this is a case where child selectors, sibling selectors, attribute selectors .... nothing works. via css .... one can select only tags "with certain parents" ... but not only tags "having certain children" it would seem.