Alex > Im trying to reduce the whitespace between printable > characters to a single space. > > What i want to do is get all of the the words in a text so as > to make a histogram of word frequencies. > > Im doing this by exploding the string and using space as the > delimiter. Caveat: I'm not a PHP programmer. Having said this, would it be easier to use regular expressions to create a collection of words thus: preg_match("/^\w/i", $text, $matches); After which you could analyse the words in the collection. > that only works in so far as words that are separated by > spaces. so i find that i get words that have been yoked > together since they were seperated with a return character. > > how would i convert the text to be ready before i use 'explode'? If you must use this method, can you use regular expressions, replacing strings conforming to the following pattern with a single space: /[\n\r\\s\t]+/ To be on the safe side you could then replace strings conforming to the following pattern with a single space: /\s+/ HTH Chris Marsh Web Developer http://www.globet.com/ Tel: +44 20 8246 4804 Ext 828 Fax: +44 20 8246 4808 Any opinions expressed in this email are those of the individual and not necessarily the Company. This message is intended for the use of the individual or entity to which it is addressed and may contain information that is confidential and privileged and exempt from disclosure under applicable law. If the reader of this message is not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that any dissemination, distribution, or copying of this communication is strictly prohibited. If you have received this communication in error, please contact the sender immediately and delete it from your system.