Rudy and Steve offered up some nice suggestions & tips for improving my ugly sql ... Thanks Guys! 'Archaic'? 'Deprecated'? Oy! ... But yeah, that sounds about right. <sigh /> You guys are on the money. I need to sharpen up, go back in and clean up this ugliness. I'm sure I have enough bad practice things sitting around to keep me busy for a while! Cheers, RonL.